FARKLI TOPRAK İŞLEME VE YAPRAK ALANI/ÜRÜN MİKTARLARININ SYRAH ÜZÜM ÇEŞİDİNİN FİZYOLOJİSİ, MORFOLOJİSİ VE ÜZÜM BİLEŞİMİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ:

Elman Bahar

Özet


Bu çalışma Syrah üzüm çeşidinde farklı toprak işleme ve yaprak alanı/ürün miktarlarının şıra özellikleri üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla 2010 yılı vegetasyon periyodunda yürütülmüştür. 2.6m x 1m aralık ve mesafelerle dikilmiş asmalara, modifiye Lyre Sisteminde çift kollu kordon terbiye şekli verilmiştir. Araştırmada, 110R üzerine aşılı Syrah üzüm çeşidi kullanılmıştır. Bölünmüş parseller deneme desenine göre 3 tekerrürlü olarak kurulmuş olan araştırmada toplam 90 asma kullanılmıştır. Beş toprak işleme [Korumalı Toprak İşleme, Korumalı Toprak İşleme+Yağış Uzaklaştırma Uygulaması, Korumalı Toprak İşleme+Geleneksel Toprak İşleme, [(Korumalı Toprak İşleme+Yağış Uzaklaştırma Uygulaması)+Geleneksel Toprak İşleme] ve Geleneksel Toprak İşleme] ve üç Yaprak Alanı/Ürün Miktarı [(K: YA/ÜM= ~1), (%33 SS: YA/ÜM= ~1,5), (%66 SS: YA/ÜM= ~2,5)] kombinasyonu yer almıştır. SÇKM korumalı toprak işleme (KTİ-YUU:21,2 °Brix) uygulamalarında geleneksel toprak işlemeye (20,23 °Brix) göre daha yüksek olmuştur. Salkım seyreltme oranı artıkça SÇKM artış eğilimi (Kontrol: 20,1 °Brix, %66 SS: 21,1 °Brix) göstermiştir. Benzer eğilimler şeker konsantrasyonu ve tanedeki şeker miktarlarında da saptanmıştır. Salkım seyreltme uygulamaları Antosiyanin kosantrasyonunu ve toplam polifenol indeksini artırırken, KTİ ise salkımdaki tane sayısı ve tane iriliğine bağlı olarak bu değerleri azaltmıştır.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Antosiyanin, TPİ, SÇKM, Titrasyon asitliği, tanede şeker miktarı

Referanslar


Aires A, Neves M, Almeida C, Castro R (1997). Influência do controlo da produção na relação rendimento/qualidade (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Baga). Actas de Horticultura, III Congresso Ibérico de Ciências Hortícolas. 4: 217-222.

Bahar E, Carbonneau A, Korkutal I (2011). The effect of extreme water stress on leaf drying limits and possibilities of recovering in three grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars. Afr. J Agric. Res. 6(5): 1151-1160.

Bahar E, Yaşasın AS (2010). The yield and berry quality under different soil tillage and clusters thinning treatments in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 5(21): 2986-2993.

Bindon K, Dry P, Loveys B (2008). The interactive effect of pruning level and irrigation strategy on grape berry ripening and composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah. S. Afr. J Enol. Vitic. 29(2): 71-78.

Blouin J, Guimberteau G (2000). Maturation et maturité des raisins. Editions Feret. ISBN-10: 2902416490.

Boubals D (2001). L’éclaircissage manuel de grapes (vendage en vert). Progréss Agricole et Viticole. 118(17): 372-374.

Carbonneau A (1980). Recherce sur les systemes de conduite de la vigne: Essai de maitrise du microclimat et de la plante entrieri pour produire economiquement du raisin de quality. These Doc. Univ. Bordeaux II.

Carbonneau A (1998). Aspects qualitatifs. 258-276. In: Tiercelin, JR (Ed.), Traite d’irrigation. Tec&Doc. Lavosier Ed., Paris, 1011 p.

Carbonneau A, Bahar E (2009). Vine and berry responses to contrasted water fluxes in Ecotron around veraison: Manipulation of berry shriveling and consequences on berry growth, sugar loading and maturation. 16. International Symp. GIESCO Univ. of California. 12- 15 July 2009, USA, pp. 145-154.

Cemeroğlu B (2007). Gıda Analizleri. Gıda Teknolojisi Derneği Yayınları. Ankara. Yayın No: 34.

Chacón JL, García E, Martínez J, Romero R, Gómez S (2009). Impact of the vine water status on the berry and seed phenolic composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in a warm climate: Consequence for the style of wine. Vitis. 48(1): 7-9.

Clingeleffer PR (2000) Mechanization of wine and raisin production in Australian vineyards. In: Proceedings of the ASEV 50th Anniversary Annual Meeting, Seattle Washington, U.S.A. Ed J.M. Rantz (American Society for Enology and Viticulture: Davis, Calif.) 165-169.

Collins C, Dry PR (2009). Response of fruitset and other yield components to shoot topping and 2-chlorethyltrimethyl-ammonium chloride application. Austr. J Grape and Wine Res. 15: 256-267.

Coombe BG, McCarthy MG (1997). Identification and naming of the inception of aroma development in ripening grape berries. Austr. J Grape and Wine Res. 3: 18-20.

Corino L, Ruaro P, Renosio G, Rabino M, Malerba G (1991). Cluster thinning on the Barbera vine in some areas of Monferrato. Viticultural behaviour. Vignevini, Bologna. 18(7-8): 51-55.

Cravero MC, Ubigli M, Bosso A, Panero L, Serpentino ML, Follis R, Ponte C (2002). Comparison between plant cover and tillage: enological and sensory aspects. Informatore Agrario. 58(2): 31-36.

Dai ZW, Ollat N, Gomès E, Decroocq S, Tandonnet JP, Bordenave L, Pieri P, Hilbert G, Kappel C, van Leeuwen C, Vivin P, Delrot S (2011). Ecophysiological, genetic, and molecular causes of variation in grape berry weight and composition: A review. AJEV 62(4): 413-425.

Deloire A, Carbonneau A, Wang Z, Ojeda H (2004). Vine and water, a short review. J Int. Sci. Vigne Vin. 38(1): 1-13.

Downey MO, Harvey JS, Robinson SP (2003). Synthesis of flavonols and expression of flavonol synthase genes in the developing grape berries of Shiraz and Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L.). Austr. J Grape and Wine Research. 9: 110-121.

Dry PR (2000). Canopy management for fruitfulness. Austr. J Grape and Wine Research. 6: 109-115.

Ellis W (2008). Grapevine (Shiraz/R99) water relations during berry ripening. Master Thesis of Agric. and Forestry Sci. at Stellenbosch University. 145p.

Etchebarne F, Ojeda H, Hunter JJ (2010). Leaf : fruit ratio and vine water status effects on Grenache Noir (Vitis vinifera L.) berry composition: water, sugar, organic acids and cations. S. Afr. J Enol. Vitic. 31(2): 106-115.

Gao Y, Cahoon GA (1998). Cluster thinning effects on fruit weight, juice quality and fruit skin characteristics in Reliance grapes. Research Cicular Ohio Agric. Res. and Development Center. 299: 87-93.

Girona J, Marsal J, Mata M, Del Campo J, Basile B (2009). Phenological sensitivity of berry growth and composition of Tempranillo grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) to water stress. Austr. J Grape and Wine Res. 15: 268-277.

Gomez del Campo M, Ruiz C, Lissarague JR (2002). Effect of water stress on leaf area development, photosynthesis, and productivity in Chardonnay and Airen grapevines. Amer. J Enol and Vitic. 53(2): 138-142.

Holzapfe B, Rogiers S (2002). Ripening grapes to specification: identifying manageable factors determining grape composition & quality through carbohydrate sink-source relationships. Final Report to Grape and Wine Research & Development Corporation.

Hua L, Zhumei X, Yulin F, Zhenven Z (2005). Effects of grass cover in vineyards on vine growth and wine quality. J Fruit Sci. 22(6): 697-701.

INRA (2007). Determination d’Anthocyanes en echantillons de raisin. Mode operatiore. Ref: MO-LAB-23. Version: 1, Septembre 2007. UE Pech Rouge. 2p.

Irimia L, Tardea C (2006). The Exposable Leaf Area and the Leaf Index, which Characterize the Grapevine Training Systems in the Avereşti Wine-Growing Centre, Huşi Vineyard. Agronomical Res. Moldavia. 3(127): 41-46.

Kliewer WM, Dokoozlian N (2005). Leaf area/crop weight ratios of grapevines: influence on fruit composition and wine quality. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 56: 2.

Kraft A (1995). Flachenberechnung einer SW-Grafik Flaeche packing programme.

Lorenz DH, Eichhorn KW, Bleiholder H, Klose R, Meier U, Weber E (1995). Phenological growth stages of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) codes and descriptions according to the extended BBCH Scale. Austr. J Grape and Wine Res. 1: 100-110.

Martins S (2007). Monda de cachos na casta Touriga nacional. efeitos no rendimento e qualidade. tese Mestrado em viticultura e enologia. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Universidade do Porto.

Mattii GB, Storichi P, Ferini F (2005). Effects of soil management on physiological, vegetative and reproductive characteristics of Sangiovese grapevine. Adv. Hort. Sci. 19(4): 198-205.

Noar A, Gal Y, Bravdo B (2002). Shoot and cluster thinning influence vegetative growth, fruit yield, and wine quality of Sauvignon blanc grapevines. J American Society Horticultural Science. 127: 628-634.

OIV (2009). 2nd Edition of the OIV descriptor list for grape varieties and Vitis species. 178p.

Palliotti A, Cartechini A (2000). Cluster thinning effects on yield and grape composition in different grapevine cultivars. Acta Hort. 512: 111-120.

Palma L, Novello V, Tarricome L, Frabboni L, Lopriore G, Soleti F (2007). Grape and wine quality as influenced by the agronomical soil protection in a viticultural system of southern Italy. Quaderni di Scienze Viticole ed Enologiche, Univ. Torino. 29: 83-111.

Pena-Neira A, Caceres A, Pastenes C (2007). Low molecular weight phenolic and anthocyanin composition of grape skins from cv. Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.) in the maipo valley (Chile): Effect of clusters thinning and vineyard yield. Food Science and Tech. Int. 13(2): 153-158.

Prajitna A, Dami I, Steiner T, Ferree D, Scheerens J, Schwartz S (2007). Influence of cluster thinning on phenolic composition resveratrol and antioxidant capacity in Chambourcin wine. Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 58: 346-350.

Ó-Marques J, Reguinga R, Laureano O, Ricardo-Da-Silva JM (2005). Changes in grape seed, skin and pulp condensed tannins during berry ripening: effect of fruit pruning. Ciência Téc. Vitiv. 20(1): 25-52.

Reynolds AG (1989). Riesling grapes respond to cluster thinning and shoot density manipulation. J Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 114(3): 364-360.

Reynolds A, Price S, Wardle D, Watson B (1994). Fruit environment and crop level effects on Pinot noir. Vine Performance and Fruit Composition in the British Columbia. Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 45: 452-459.

Roby G, Harbertson JF, Adams DA, Matthews MA (2004). Berry size and vine water deficits as factors in winegrape composition: anthocyanins and tannins. Aust. J Grape and Wine Res. 10: 100-107.

Rubio JA (2002). Riego y aclareo de racimos: efectos en la actividad fisiolofica, en el control del rendimiento y en la calidad de la uva del cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Escuela de Agrónomos.

Sanchez-de-Miguel P, Bazea P, Junquera P, Lissarrague JR (2010). Chapter: 3 Vegetative development: Total leaf area and surface area indexes. S. Delrot et al. (eds.) Methodologies and results in grapevine research. Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 31-44.

Scholander PF, Hammel HT, Bradstreet ED, Hemmingsen EA (1965). Sap pressure in vascular plants. Science. 148: 339-346.

Schultz HR, Matthews MA (1993). Growth, osmotic adjustment and cellwall mechanics of expanding grape leaves during water deficits. Crop Sci. 33: 287-294.

Smart RE, Dick JK, Gravett IM, Fisher BM (1990). Canopy management to improve grape yield and wine quality - principles and practices. S Afr. J Enol. Vitic. 11(1): 3-17.

Smith R, Prichard T (2002). UC Cooperative Extension August http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/ files/filelibrary/2161/41093.pdf.

Tesic D, Keller M, Hutton R (2007). Influence of vineyards flor management practices on grapevine vegetative growth, yield and fruit composition. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 58(1): 1-11.


Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.