BAZI KIRMIZI ÜZÜM ÇEŞİTLERİNDE ANTİOKSİDAN ÖZELLİK GÖSTEREN BİLEŞİKLERİN BELİRLENMESİ

Filiz HALLAÇ TÜRK

Özet


Antioksidan maddelerce zengin ürünlerle beslenme serbest radikallerin neden olduğu hastalıkların önlenmesi ve yaşlanma belirtilerinin geciktirilmesi ve azaltılması bakımından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu nedenle özellikle son yıllarda antioksidan özellik taşıyan bileşiklerce zengin meyve ve sebzelerle beslenme alışkanlığının kazandırılmasına yönelik toplumsal algı giderek artan bir önem sergilemektedir. Bu araştırma ile bazı kırmızı üzüm çeşitlerinin insan sağlığı üzerinde önemli etkileri bulunan ve bu nedenle antioksidan özellik gösteren, toplam fenolik, toplam flavanol, antosiyanin, toplam karoten, β-karoten, likopen, ksantofil, ve L-askorbik asit içeriklerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bitkisel materyal olarak, Cabernet Sauvignon, Flame Seedless, Hamburg Misketi, Kalecik Karası ve Tekirdağ Çekirdeksiz üzüm çeşitleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadaki tüm antioksidant özellik gösteren bileşiklerin miktarları spektrofotometrik yöntemler kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda toplam fenolik bileşik, toplam flavanol ve antosiyanin içeriği bakımından Cabernet Sauvignon çeşidinin, toplam karetonid, likopen ve ksantofil bakımından ise Hamburg Misketi çeşidinin diğer çeşitlere oranla daha yüksek içeriğe sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Cabernet Sauvignon, Kalecik Karası ve Flame Seedless üzüm çeşitlerine ait tanelerin daha yüksek seviyelerde β-karoten sentezledikleri, Hamburg Misketi, Tekirdağ Çekirdeksiz ve Cabernet Saugvinon üzüm çeşitlerinin ise en yüksek askorbik asit içeriğine sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir. 


Anahtar Kelimeler


Üzüm; Antioksidan; Çeşit; Fenolik Bileşik; Karetonoid; Askorbik asit

Referanslar


AOAC, 1990. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, Method No. 970. 64. Extraction of carotenes and xantophylls, Vol. II, 15th Ed. pp. 1048-1049. Association of Offical Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.

Arnous, A., Makris, D.P., Kefalas, P., 2001. Effect of principal polyphenolic components in relation to antioxidant characteristics of aged red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(12):5736-5742.

Barba, A.I.O., Hurtado, M.C., Sanchez Mata, M.C., Fernandez Ruiz, V., Lopez Saenza de Tejada, M., 2006. Application of a UV-vis detection HPLC method for a rapid determination of lycopene and β-carotene in vegetables. Food Chemistry, 95:328-336.

Brown, L., Rimm, E.B., Seddon, J.M., Giovannucci, E.L., Chasan-Taber, L., Spiegelman, D., Willett, W.C., Hankinson, S.E. 1999. A Prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. American. Journal of Clininical Nutition, 70:517-524.

Broussaud, F., Cheynier, V., Asselin, C., Moutounet, M., 1999. Flavonoid compositional differences of grapes among site test plantings of Cabernet Franc. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 50: 277–284.

Champagnol, F. 1998. Critéres de qualité de la vendange. In: Oenologie, fondements scientifiques et technologies. C. Flanzy (Ed), pp.653-659. Lavoisier Tec and Doc, Paris.

Chaumont, M., Morot-Gaudry, J.F., Foyer, C., 1995. Effects of photoinhibitory treatment on CO2 assimilation, the quantum yield of CO2 assimilation, D1 protein, ascorbate, glutathione and xanthophyll contents and the electron transport in vine leaves. Plant, Cell and Environment 18:1358–1366.

Chen, L.S., Cheng, L.,2003. Both xanthophyll cycle‐dependent thermal dissipation and the antioxidant system are up‐regulated in grape (Vitis labrusca L. cv. Concord) leaves in response to N limitation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 54:2165-2175.

Costa, C.T., Horton, D., Margolis, S.A., 2000. Analysis of anthocyanins in foods by liquid chromatography, Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, 881:403-410.

Crupi, P., Coletta, A., Milella, R.A., Palmisano, G., Baiano, A., La Notte, E., Antonacci, D., 2010. Carotenoid and chlorophyll-derived compounds in some wine grapes grown in Apulian region. Journal of Food Science, 75(4):191-198.

Çetin, E.S., Babalık, Z., Göktürk Baydar, N., 2012. Bazı sofralık üzüm çeşitlerinde tanelerdeki toplam karbonhidrat, fenolik madde, antosiyanin, β-karoten ve C Vitamini içeriklerinin belirlenmesi. IV. Ulusal Üzümsü Merytveler Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitabı. 03-05 Ekim, 2012, 151- 156.

De La Hera Orts, M.L., Martinez Cutillas, A., Lopez Roca, J.M., Gomez Plaza, E., 2005. Effect of moderate irrigation on grape composition during ripening. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 3:352-361.

Di Mascio, P., Aaiser, S., Sies, H., 1989. Lycopene as the most effective biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 274:532–538.

Espin, J.C., Garcia-Conesa, M.T., Tomas-Barberan, F.A., 2007. Nutraceuticals: facts and fiction. Phytochemistry, 68(22-24): 2986-3008.

Fish, W.W., Perkins-Veazie, P., Collins, J.K., 2002. A Quantitative assay for lycopene that utilizes reduced volume of organic solvents. Journal of Food Comosition. Analysis, 15: 309-317.

Frankel, E.N., Waterhouse, A.L., Teissedre, P.L., 1995. Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected California wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43:890–894.

Gawel, R., 1998. Red wine astringency: A Review. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 4:74–95.

Ghiselli, A., Nardini, M., Baldi, A., Scaccini, C., 1998. Antioxidant Activity of Different Phenolic Fractions Peperated from Italian Red Wine. J.Agric.Food Chem., 46:361-367.

Göktürk Baydar, N., 2006. Organic Acids, tocopherols and phenolic compositions of some turkish grape cultivars. Chemistry of Natural Compounds.42(2):156-159.

Göktürk Baydar, N., Çetin, S., Hallaç, F., Babalık, Z., 2005. Üzümlerde fenolik madde içeriklerinin spektrofotometrik yöntemlerle belirlenmesi. VI. Bağcılık Sempozyumu Bildirileri: 329-334, Cilt I. 19-23 Eylül 2005, Tekirdağ.

Guerreroa, R. F., Liazidb, A., Palma M., Puertas, B., González-Barrioc, R., Gil-Izquierdoc, A., Carmelo García-Barroso, C., Cantos-Villar, E., 2009. phenolic characterisation of red grapes autochthonous to Andalusia. Food Chemistry, 112: 949–955.

Ho, P., Silvia, M.C., Hogg, T.A., 2001. Changes in Colour and phenolic composition during the early stages of maturation of port in wood, stainless steel and glass. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 81:1269-1280.

Hohnova, B., Savikova L., Karasek, P., 2008. Determination of anthocyanins in red grape skin by pressurised fluid extraction and HPLC. Czech Jornal of Food Science, 26:39-S42.

Ivanova, V., Dörnyei, Á., Mark, L., Vojnoski, B., Stafilov, T., Stefova, M., 2011. Polyphenolic content of vranec wines produced by different vinification conditions. Food Chemistry, 124:316-325.

Ivanova, V., Stefova, M., Chinnici, F., 2010. Determination of the polyphenol contents in macedonian grapes and wines by standardized spectrophotometric methods. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 75:45-59.

Kelebek, H. 2009. Değişik Bölgelerde Yetiştirilen Öküzgözü, Boğazkere ve Kalecik Karası üzümlerin ve bu üzümlerden elde edilen şarapların fenol bileşikleri profili üzerinde araştırmalar. Çukurova Üniversitesi, Doktora tezi, 278 s, Adana

Kopsell, D.A., Kopsell, D.E., 2006. Accumulation and bioavailability of dietary carotenoids in vegetable crops. Trends Plant Science, 11:499-507.

Kong J, Chia L, Goh N, Chia T, Brouillard R. 2003. Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Phytochemistry, 64:923-933.

Krinsky, N.I., Johnson, E.J. 2005. Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26:459-516.

Liakopoulos,G., Nikolopoulos,D., Vekkos,A,K., Yiannis Manetas, Y., Karabourniotis, G., 2006. The photoprotective role of epidermal anthocyanins and surface pubescence in young leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Annals of Botanty; 98(1): 257-265.

Malaveille, C., Hautefeuille, A., Pignatelli, B., Talaksa, G., Vineis, P., Bartsch, S., 1998. Antimutagenic dietary phenolics as antigenotoxic substances in urothelium of smokers. Mutation Research Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 402 (1-2):219-224.

Mares-Perlman, J.A., Fisher, A.I., Klein, R., Palta, M., Block, G., Millen, A.E., Wright, J.D., 2001. Lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and their relation to age-related maculopathy in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153:424-432.

Mateus, N., Proença, S., Ribeiro, P. Machado, J.M., De Freıtas, V., 2001. Grape and wine polyphenolic composition of red vitis vinifera varieties concerning vineyard altitude. Ciencia. Technologia de los Alimenos, 3(2):102-110.

Matei, N., 2008. Vitamin C determination in Murfatlar grapes in the ripening period. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry, 19(1-2):45-49.

Matei, N., Soceanu, A., Dobrinas, S., Magearu, V., 2009. Kinetic study of ascorbic acid degradation from grapes. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry, 20(1):132-136.

Matei, N., Dobrinas, S., Radu, G.L., 2012. Spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in grapes with the prussian blue reaction. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry, 23(1):174-179.

Matei, N., Radu., G.L., Trucia,G., Eremia, S., Dobrinas, S., Stanciu, G., Popescu, A., 2013. Rapid HPLC method for the determination of ascorbic acid in grape samples. Anaytical Methods, 5:4675-4679.

Mazza, G., 1995. Anthocyanin in grape and grape products. Critical Rewievs in Food Science and Nutrition, 35(4):341-371.

Mendes Pinto MM, Silva Ferreira AC, Oliveira M.B.P.P., Guedes de Pinho, P. 2004. Evaluation of major carotenoids in grapes by liquid chromatography with reversed and normal phase a qualitative analysis. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 52(10):3182-3188.

Nagata, M., Yamashita, I.,1992. Simple method for simultaneous determination of chlorophyll and carotenoids in tomato fruit. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaish, 39(10):925-928.

Nychas, G. J. E., Tassou, C. C., Skandamis, P., 2003. Antimicrobials from herbs and spices. In S. Roller (Ed.), Natural Antimicrobials for The Minimal Processing of Foods, Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing. pp.176-200.

Ojeda, H., Andary, C., Creaba, E., Carbonneau, A., Deloire, A., 2002. Influence of pre and postveraison water deficit on synthesis and concentration of skin phenolic compounds during berry growth of Vitis Vinifera var. Shiraz. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 53(4):261-267.

Oliver, J., Palou, A., 2000. Chromatographic determination of carotenoids in foods. Journal of Chromatography A, 881:543-555.

Oliveira C, Silva Ferreira AC, Hogg T, Alves F, Mendes Minto M, Guedes de Pinho P. 2003. Carotenoid compounds in grapes and their relationship to plant water status. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 51(20):5967-5971.

Omoni, A.O., Aluko, R.E., 2005. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherogenic effects of lycopene. A Review. Trends Food Science Technology Journal, 16:344-350.

Pearson, D., Churchill, A.A., 1970. The chemical analysis of foods. Gloucester Place, London, 104:233.

Raffo, A., La Malfa, G., Fogliano, V., Maiani, G., Quaglia, G. 2006. Seasonal variations in antioxidant components of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Naomi F1). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19:11-19.

Razungles A. S., Babic, I., Sapis J. C, Bayonove, C.L., 1996. Particular behaviour of epoxy xanthophylls during verasion and maturation of grape. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(12):3821-3825.

Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Glories, Y., Maujean, A., Duboirdeau., 2000. Handbook of enology, Volume 2: The Chemistry of Wine and Stabilization and Treatments. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., England.

Shi,J., Le Maguer, M., 2000. Lycopene in Tomatoes: Chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 40(1):1-42.

Simpson, K.L.,1985. Chemical changes in natural food pigments. In: Chical Changes in Food during Processing. Richardson, T. And Finley, J.W. (eds), pp.409-443, New York

Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.R., 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16:144-158.

Singleton, V.L., 1972. Effects of red wines quality of removing juice before fermentation to simulate variation in berry size. American Journal of Enology and Viticuture, 23:106-113.

Stahl, W., Sies, H., 1996. Lycopene: a biologically important carotenoid for humans? Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 336:1-9.

Thompson, K.A., Marshall, M.R., Sims, C.A., Wei, C.I., Sargent, S.A., Scott, J.W., 2000. Cultivar, maturity and heat treatment on lycopene content in tomates. Journal of Food Science, 65:791-795.

Toprak, F.E., 2011. Ankara ve Nevşehir illerinde yetiştirilen Kalecik Karası üzüm çeşidinin fitokimyasal özellikleri üzerine araştırmalar. Ankara Üniversitesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 64 sayfa, Ankara.

Uluocak, E., 2010. Kazova (Tokat) yöresinde yetiştirilen bazı şaraplık üzüm çeşitlerinde olgunlaşma sırasında meydana gelen fiziksel ve kimyasal değişmeler. Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 89 s. Tokat.

Von Elbe, J.H., Schwartz, S.J. 1996. Colorants. In “Food Chemistry”, O.R. Fennema(Ed). Chapter 10. pp: 651-722. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

Vinson, J. A., Hontz, B. A.,1995. Phenol antioxidant index: comparative antioxidant effectiveness of red and white wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(2):401-403.

Vrhovsek, U., Mattivi, F., Waterhouse, A.L., 2001. Analysis of red wine phenolics: comparison of HPLC and spectrophotometric methods. Vitis, 40(2):87-91.

Yang, J., Martinson, T.E., Liu, R.H. 2009. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of wine grapes. Food Chemistry, 116:332–339.

Yücel U., Ötleş, S., 2001. Şarabın bileşimi ve beslenmedeki önemi. Dünya Gıda, 6(5):79-82.

Wang, H., Provan, G.J., Helliwell, K., 2000. Tea flavonoids: their functions, utilisation and analysis. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 11:152-160.

Williams, R.L., Elliot, M.S., 1997. Antioxidants in grapes and wine: Chemistry and Health Effects. In: Natural Antioxidants: Chemistry, Health Effects and Applications. (Ed.): F. Shahidi. American Oil Chemical Society Press, Champaign, pp. 150-173.

Wrostad, R.E., 1976. Color and pigment analysis in fruit product. Bulletin No. 624. Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Corvallis,OR.


Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.